(ASIS '97)

November 1-6, 1997
Washington, DC
Session Abstracts

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Approaching Information: Retrieval Designs Affecting Digital Collections

The panel will present and discuss two different retrieval methods involved in accessing digital collections to provide focus for a discussion of the divergent and complex skills that students of information retrieval must experience. A research report, Semantic Patterns of Keywords in Citation Clusters, will be presented to illustrate one retrieval method with growing implications for educating retrieval agents. Semantic and citation searching will impact how we perform research and how we train our students. A presentation of results of research using semantic patterns in citation clusters provides a foundation for later discussion of the competencies students will require to be able to apply such techniques. The second presentation will review current work in the vocabularies and report on how appropriate thesaurus terms are identified and what criteria must be met for inclusion. A platform development project of the Getty Information Institute will be highlighted to provide examples of the mechanisms required to receive and process terms to produce usable retrieval keys. The final paper will draw upon the first two presentations to initiate a discussion of the implications for teaching emerging information scientists how to implement retrieval instruments and strategies.

Semantic Patterns of Keywords in Citation Clusters: Developing a Common Tool for Citation-Semantic Information Retrieval. Jian Qin, School of Library and Information Science, University of Southern Mississippi (jqin@ocean.st.usm.edu).
A Getty Information Institute Database. Vivian Hay, The Getty Information Institute (vhay@getty.edu).
Creating Information-Retrieval Artists for Digital Collections. M. J. Norton, School of Library and Information Science, University of Southern Mississippi (mjnorton@ocean.st.usm.edu).

Debbie Barnes, Southeast Oklahoma State University, Moderator.

The Clash of Stakeholders on the Information Superhighway: Will Public Interest and Fair Use Survive?

Despite agreement on CONFU guidelines for the fair use of digital materials in specific instances, the publishing and educational communities remain substantially apart on the question of fair use of digital collections generally. Additionally, the WIPO agreement on databases and NII Copyright Protection Act will undoubtedly impact the future of fair use. This panel session will focus on the practicalities of differences between the publishing and educational communities on fair use of digital collections, how these differences impact developers and maintainers of digital collections, and what the impact on the public interest of reasonableaccess to information will be.

Allan A. Adler, Vice President, Legal and Governmental Affairs, Association of American Publishers.
Adam M. Eisgrau, Legislative Council, American Library Association.
Jeff Rosedale, Head, Access & Technical Support, Lehman/Social Work Library, Columbia University Libraries.

Pascal V. Calarco, Office of Information Technology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Moderator (pcalarco@erols.com).

Classification and Indexing for Image Collections: Theory and Practice

For years, the complexities of managing images and image collections has exceeded the capabilities of textual classification and indexing tools. Recent technological advancements, however, have resulted in a number of fruitful research projects. Furthermore, the new technology has created the possibility of managing images and image information in ways appropriate for image collections, rather than adapting methodologies designed for text documents. Widespread availability of digital images has generated tremendous interest in search and retrieval of images. More than a few commercial enterprises are playing an active and prominent role in amassing digital collections of images. These organizations will have considerable impact on the tools and methodologies developed for managing image collections. A very real possibility exists that private businesses will create de-facto standards, or entrenched and inertia-bound systems with insufficient attention to sound theoretical foundations for them. This session will bring together researchers and practitioners for the purpose of reporting research findings, and information about current or proposed image storage and retrieval systems. Particular attention will be given to classification and indexing of images.

Explorations in Using Audio Description as a Tool for Indexing Moving Image Documents. James M. Turner, École de bibliothèconomie et des sciences de l'information, Université de Montréal, Moderator ( turner@ere.umontreal.ca).
How People Describe Images: Continuing Research. Corinne Jorgensen, State University of New York at Buffalo (cjorgens@sbvms.cc.buffalo.edu).
Sharing Congruence: Text-Based and Image-Based Representations for Moving Images. Abbey Goodrum, University of North Texas (goodrum@lis.unt.edu).

Nancy Blase, University of Washington, Moderator (nblase@u.washington.edu).

Classificatory Structures and the Construction of Reality

This session explores how classificatory structures support interaction between individuals, discourse communities, and scholarly disciplines in the Global Information Association. Classification schemes provide access to existing knowledge and promote development of new knowledge. Although a domain-specific classification defines main concepts within a particular area, it does not exist in isolation, but shares with associated discourse communities a dialogical interconnection expressed through shared concepts. Development of these shared concepts impacts integration within traditional disciplines and underlies effective communication between social groups and knowledge domains. Such influence extends to the development and maintenance of universal schemes for large, centralized or distributed collections of information objects.

Science, Accounting, and Administration: The Worlds of the Nursing Interventions Classification. Geoffrey C. Bowker (bowker@alexia.lis.uiuc.edu) and Susan Leigh Star (star@alexia.lis.uiuc.edu), Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.
Social Constructs and Disease: Implications for a Controlled Vocabulary for HIV/AIDS. Jeffery T. Huber, Vanderbilt University Medical Center (jeffrey.huber@mcmail.vanderbilt.edu) and Mary L. Gillaspy, The Learning Center (gillaspy@utmdacc.mda.uth.tmc.edu).
Mapping Beyond Dewey's Boundaries: Constructing Classificatory Space for Marginalized Knowledge Domains. Hope A. Olson, School of Library and Information Science, University of Alberta (hope.olson@ualberta.ca).

Hanne Albrechtsen, The Royal School of Librarianship, Copenhagen, Moderator (hal@db.dk).

Digital Collections for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Access to business information is as necessary for small and medium-sized enterprises as it is for large corporations. The panelists will discuss information resources, networking opportunities, partnerships, training, and business-support services that foster productivity and quality of life for entrepreneurs. They will highlight trends and issues in the development of information sources and business opportunities in international trade for small and medium-sized enterprises.

Partnership in Competitiveness. Denise Cumming, Minnesota Technology (denise@mpls.local.mntech.org).
Small Enterprises in International Commerce: Information Sources and Services. Lena M. Paulsen, Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
Telecentres, Information Technology and Rural Development: The Australian Experience. Perry Share, Charles Stuart University, Australia (pshare@csu.edu.au).

Inez L. Sperr Brisfjord, Pratt School of Information & Library Science, Moderator.

Electronic Publication in the Sciences: An Examination of Production, Distribution, and Use

It is widely accepted that scientific publishing is inexorably changing from the traditional paper-based format to digital media. Numerous electronic publishing ventures in the sciences are already underway, resulting in the development of a number of models. Most commonly, scientific journals and other literature are being published simultaneously in both print and electronic formats. However, some journals and other materials (e.g., technical reports, newsletters and databanks) are being produced, distributed and used completely in electronic format. While the electronic medium offers some clear and sometimes exciting advantages, there are also attendant challenges to electronic production, dissemination and use of scientific information. This session will bring together participants representing the areas of production, distribution and use of electronic scientific publications. Ellis Rubinstein, editor of the journal Science, a publication of the American Society for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), will discuss and provide insight into the electronic publication of that prestigious journal. Dr. Donald Johnson of the U.S. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) will speak on the current practices and future vision for distribution of electronic publications through NTIS. NTIS is a major distributor of scientific and technical research and has been developing a number of novel projects to expedite the distribution of information electronically. Ann Weller will address user expectations and needs in the electronic environment.

Dr. Julie Hurd, author of the 1996 ASIS publication From Print to Electronic: The Transformation of Scientific Communications, will react to the individual presentations and provide comments on future issues in scientific electronic publishing.

A Cyber-Editor's Vision of Scientific Information Dissemination. Ellis Rubinstein, Science (erubinst@aaas.org).
Technology and Changing Federal Budgets. Donald Johnson, National Technical Information Service.
Users' Issues in the Electronic Information Environment. Ann C. Weller, Library of the Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (acw@uic.edu).

Julie Hurd, Science Library, Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago, Reactor.
Natalie Schoch, Kellogg Company Science and Technology Center, Moderator (natalie.schoch@kellogg.com).

Funders' Forum: Private Public Support for Digitization Projects

As digital collections increase in importance and become the focus of scholarly and popular pursuits, the impetus to create and make accessible new digital resources grows ever stronger. At the same time, funders are demanding that projects produce results that benefit not just a select few but a wide range of institutions and individuals. Many information professionals are familiar with those public agency and private foundation initiatives that are specific to a particular area or topic; there are few opportunities for us to hear directly from funders who sponsor more overarching programs. The 1997 Funding Forum is meant to serve as a platform for representatives of a variety of programs to discuss their expectations for projects to be funded in the next cycle, currently funded initiatives, the relative success of past projects, and their hopes for future collaborative efforts. The forum is also meant to provide personal contact with both the program representatives and with the other participants, many of whom represent institutions with whom fruitful collaborations may be built. A panel of ASIS members who represent various research areas will ask questions of the funders. Ample time for questions and access to the speakers will be provided.

Les Gasser, Information Technology and Organizations Program, National Science Foundation (gasser@nsf.gov).
Steve Griffin, Digital Libraries Initiative, National Science Foundation (sgriffin@nsf.gov).
Donald Drucker, Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program, NTIA, Department of Commerce (ddrucker@ntia.doc.gov).
Jeffrey Field, National Endowment for the Humanities.
Diane B. Frankel, Institute of Museum and Library Studies, (dfrankel@ims.fed.us). (Invited)

Terry Grose Beamsley, Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village, Moderator (tbeamsley@aol.com).

Globalization: Shaping Organizational Strategies, Building Partnerships, and Enhancing Information Exchange in the Information Age

Globalization is characterized by a multitude of linkages and interconnections that transcend the geo-political boundaries that define the modern world system, and implies that events, decisions and activities in one locality can have significant consequences for individuals and communities in distant parts of the world. Technology has been an instrumental force in globalization, affecting the way people and organizations work and communicate worldwide. At the same time, globalization has been shaped by organizational strategies, technological limitations and national policies. This understanding constitutes the framework for the session.

Organizational Challenges to Global Demands for Information Sharing. Sue O'Neill Johnson, World Bank.
Cooperative International Partnerships for Sci-Tech Libraries. Martin Kesselman, Rutgers University Library of Science and Medicine.
The Impact of Information and Communications Technology on International Conflict Management. Margarita S. Studemeister, U.S. Institute of Peace
The Global Information Infrastructure: A Perspective From the National Library of Medicine. Elliot Siegel, National Library of Medicine.

Pauline Cochrane, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Moderator (pcochran@uiuc.edu).

Information Technology Projects at the National Library of Medicine

The National Library of Medicine has been a pioneer in the use of computer systems to encode and distribute knowledge in the life sciences. Three of these projects will be discussed: the Visible Human Project, the Unified Medical Language System, and the Natural Language Systems.

The Visible Human Project. Michael J. Ackerman, Lister Hill Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine.
Unified Medical Language System. Betsy L. Humphreys, National Library of Medicine.
The Natural Language Systems. Alexa T. McCray, National Library of Medicine.

Ann C. Weller, Library of the Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Moderator (acw@uic.edu).

Interface Design for a High-Speed World: An On-site Demonstration of Iterative Prototyping

High speed software development has become a competitive imperative. The times when a development team could count on 18 months between releases has ended. At the same time, customer demand has increased for software that is easy to learn and use. To cope with these often conflicting demands of high speed development and a high degree of usability, the model of iterative prototyping was developed. Using this model the software is usability tested and information from that testing is immediately incorporated into the software and the usability testing is repeated. This session will offer any ASIS attendees the opportunity to participate in a usability test and see the results of their tests incorporated into a piece of software. Using a portable usability equipment setup, attendees will be tested on sample software during the first three days of the conference (Sunday, Monday, Tuesday). The results of the test along with the modified software would be presented in a session on Wednesday. Right now, the plans are to use an HTML-based software for the usability test due to its flexibility as a multi-platform tool.

Teri O'Connell, Digital Media and HCI Lab, American Management Systems (teri_o'connell@mail.amsinc.com).
Myke Gluck, School of Library and Information Studies, Florida State University (mgluck@lis.fsu.edu).
Peter Scannell, Avid Technology, Inc.
Janette Bradley, axsWave Software, Inc. (janette@metronet.com).

Teri O'Connell, Digital Media and HCI Lab, American Management Systems, Moderator (teri_o'connell@mail.amsinc.com).

Interface Design for Digital Special Collections

Special collections have always presented the IS professional with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. As we move to digitize existing collections and create new digital information stores, the issue of providing access to the digital representation becomes a central concern. This panel will examine both the opportunities and challenges of designing interfaces for diverse user populations accessing digital special collections.

Interface Design Concepts in the Development of a Web-Based Information Retrieval System. Philip J. Smith (phil+@osu.edu), Marie Shuttleworth (mshuttle@enc.org), Rebecca Denning, Karen Abhari, Stephen P. Sarapata, and Min-Te Sun, Ohio State University.
Getting Clinicians to Use the System. Douglas M. Stetson, J.D. Stetson Associates, Inc. (dstetson@jdsa.com).
Web-Based Interfaces for Special Collections. Erica Lilly, Kent State University Libraries (elilly@lms.kent.edu).

Janette Bradley, The Entrepreneur Store, Moderator (janette@metronet.com).

International Assistance for Networking in Less-Developed Countries

This session will cast light on the various bodies which are currently involved in building information networks in less technologically developed countries. The session hopes to raise awareness not only about the multiplicity of funding agencies but of the different policies and philosophies being pursued by the funding agencies supporting information infrastructure development.

Pamela Spence Richards, School of Communication, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers University.
Regina Varniene, National Library of Lithuania.
Wendy White, US National Research Council.
Didier Ouillo, French Ministry of Education.

Pamela Spence Richards, School of Communication, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers University, Moderator (pamrich@mariner.rutgers.edu).

Linking Government Data Producers to the Intermediary User Communities
Bureau of Labor Statistics

The availability of the Internet to distribute information has provided opportunities and challenges to data producers, data users, and the intermediary community. For government data producers, the Internet has provided a new medium to distribute information more quickly and completely than was possible using traditional methods. But, this information is just a speck among the entire range of materials available to users. Processes to facilitate access to this information and assure its reliability and authenticity are essential and require an understanding of the linkage between content and technology. The federal statistical community recognized that individual agencies had developed excellent web sites that showcased their own statistics arranged in a way that suited that material. This meant that users had to know which agency produced which statistics, and faced a variety of organizational schemes as they attempted to find what they were looking for. To minimize this problem, a task-force was established and charged with developing an interface that would provide a single site through which all federal statistics could be located, while control of the statistics themselves remained with the data producers. This site is called FEDSTATS (http://www.fedstats.gov/). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) faced a related challenge. It wished to encourage the international statistical agencies to maintain certain standards for official statistics and it also wanted to facilitate use and comparisons of these data. The IMF's Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (http://dsbb.imf.org/) provides key information about economic and financial data disseminated by member countries that subscribe to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS). Now that both sites have been established, customer feedback is being monitored and enhancements are being considered to better serve the user communities. This session will focus on the development, content, and plans for these two web sites to illustrate some of the issues faced in linking producers and users.

Deborah Klein, Bureau of Labor Statistics (klein_d@bls.gov).
Alan R. Tupek, National Science Foundation (atupek@nsf.gov).
Ted Saunders, International Monetary Fund (esaunders@imf.org).

Deborah Klein, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Moderator (klein_d@bls.gov).

Metadata, the Uniform Resource Characteristic, and What URCs Mean for Access

One standard that supports the Web is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), a standard way of addressing networked resources. URLs have serious limitations, including expired links, confusion between names and addresses, and difficulty in distinguishing between various versions of a resource. Unlike the world of online catalogs, the web does not offer an infrastructure for bibliographic control. To deal with these inadequacies, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) established the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Working Group to discuss and develop standards for naming, describing and addressing Internet resources. One intent of the Working Group is to create an all encompassing concept and associated syntax that will include and coordinate all forms of URs that might be needed. Two forms of URIs have been proposed, the Uniform Resource Names (URNs) and the Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs). The URN is intended to deal with the issue of unique identifiers for networked resources. The URC is intended to contain metadata about a URN. In other words, the URC will supply a "bibliographic" description to an Internet resource to facilitate discovery of networked digital resources and collections. The session will mainly focus on the URC. Various proposals for their implementation and other metadata standards, such as the Dublin Core, will be outlined and presented.

Where Do We Stand on Uniform Resource Identifiers? Clifford Lynch, Coalition for Networked Information.
URNs and URCs: Representation, Operation, and Status. Michael Mealling, Network Solutions, and Ron Daniel, Jr., Los Alamos National Lab.
Metadata, MARC, and the Dublin Core. Rebecca Guenther, Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress.

Ray Schwartz, Dana Library, Rutgers University, Moderator (rps@andromeda.rutgers.edu).

Multilingual Databases In the Networking Age: Strategies for Connecting Producers and Users

Research done by non-English speaking researchers and published in English journals can usually join the global information exchange cycle. But much of the research published in languages other than English has long been obscured by a much smaller distribution. Multilingual databases are created to broaden the dissemination of information in languages other than English. As information technology, especially networking technology, has developed, accessibility to multilingual databases has been greatly improved. This panel brings together a group of international speakers to exchange ideas and discuss issues related to producing and implementing multilingual databases. The panel focuses on the implications of multilingual databases, that is, the availability and accessibility of multilingual databases, economics of multilingual database production and use, and theoretical issues. Through the panel discussion, better ways to distribute information generated in non-English speaking countries to the other parts of the world may emerge.

Cross Linguistic Scholarly Information Transfer and Database Services in Japan. Noriko Kando, National Center for Science Information Systems (kando@rd.nacsis.ac.jp).
iAgent: A Multilingual Intelligent Information Retrieval System in Singapore. Jianqun Wang, School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh (janewang@lis.pitt.edu) and Kok Fung Lai, Information Technology Institute (kflai@iti.gov.sg).
Industry-Library Collaboration in Providing Access to Multilingual Information Around the World: WorldLinq at Queens Public Library. Xuemao Wang, Queens Public Library (xuemaow@queens.lib.ny.us).
Policy Issues in Developing Multilingual Scientific Databases in China. Foster Zhang, Knight-Ridder Information, Inc. (foster_zhang@krinfo.com).

Linda Smith, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Moderator (smith@alexia.lis.uiuc.edu).

Networked Distribution of Electronic Publications: Planning and Research
SIG TIS, National Federation of Abstracting and Information Services

Publishers, database developers, and distributors of digital collections are engaged in cooperative research projects with digital and traditional libraries to plan and test systems for networked distribution of electronic publications. A variety of delivery alternatives, search and retrieval systems, and print-on-demand modes are being compared in order to arrive at economically and functionally acceptable models. Institutions with varying types and levels of technical infrastructure are participating in the projects. User behavior study might result in improvements in article structure or retrieval tools. The overall goal of most studies seems to be to reduce the unit cost of information delivery and retrieval. The panelists will discuss specific projects, results achieved to date, and implications for the future.

Adam Bernacki, Elsevier Science.
Helen Atkins, Institute for Scientific Information.
Bette Brunelle, Ovid Technologies.

Inez L. Sperr Brisfjord, Pratt School of Information & Library Science, Moderator.

Organizing and Representing Knowledge Graphically Using Classification Structures

Classification structures may prove invaluable in the construction of graphical interfaces for information retrieval systems to make retrieval simpler and faster to use and easier to understand. Classification structures have the potential to contribute to both the retrieval and display aspects of system design. This session will explore ways classification structures in graphical interfaces may enhance information retrieval system design. It will include presentations from research in constructing a visual terminology database and will consider possibilities for graphic presentation of known-item information in online catalogs.

The Application of Classification Structures in a Visual Terminology Database of Medicinal Herbs. Marcia Lei Zeng, School of Library and Information Science, Kent State University (mzeng@kentvm.kent.edu).
Graphic Representation of Author and Work Information Using Classification. Allyson Carlyle (acarlyle@u.washington.edu) and Sam Oh ( ohs@u.washington.edu), Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Washington.

Graphical Displays of Term Relationships. Xia Lin, College of Information Science & Technology, Drexel University (xlin@acm.org).

Two different ways of displaying term relationships are studied. One is to display terms in a hierarchy. The hierarchy can group terms by their semantic relationships. Its structure can be expanded or contracted to allow the user to focus on different details. The display terms can be linked to pre-constructed queries to all ow search engines to retrieve accurately information related to the display terms. This hierarchical display is compared to a map display of terms. On the map display, term relationships are shown by their relative geographical locations, which are determined by the computer through analysis of text or term relationships. This presentation will focus on how these two displays can be generated manually or automatically, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the potential applications of these displays in the web environment. Research prototypes for both displays will be presented and discussed.

Development of a Lattice-Based Graphical Interface for Conceptual Navigation in Classification Systems. Uta Priss (upriss@indiana.edu) and Elin K. Jacob (ejac ob@indiana.edu), School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University.

Raya Fidel, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Washington, Moderator (fidelr@u.washington.edu).

Pamoja: A Training Simulation for International Information Flow

Gail Wadsworth and Wendy White, the creators of Pamoja, will facilitate this exciting simulation at the 1997 Annual Meeting of ASIS. Pamoja is a training simulation intended to raise awareness about the equity in international information flows and importance of developing a multitude of information resources. In Pamoja, players divide into teams representing countries, select roles that they will play, and create cultures. They then negotiate to get as much information from and about the other teams as possible. While there is some competition, cooperation is encouraged. Pamoja is the Swahili word for "together"; it expresses both the philosophy and the unique nature of the game. By playing Pamoja, participants can gain an understanding of: the global imbalances in information resources; the relative cost of these resources; some of the barriers to the flow of information to, from, and within resource-poor and resource-rich countries; the interdependence of information seekers and information providers at all levels of information infrastructure development; and ways in which different cultures interact to share information, ideas, and knowledge. Participation in this special double session is limited and you must pre-register.

Wendy White, Director, Committee on International Organizations and Programs, National Research Council. Moderator (wwhite@nas.edu).
Gail Wadsworth.

Wendy White, Director, Committee on International Organizations and Programs, National Research Council. Moderator (wwhite@nas.edu).

Providing Library Resources via the World Wide Web: Implications of User Studies

When the Web emerged, many librarians saw it as the perfect technology for information resources, the mythical "seamless interface" in which users could search multiple database simultaneously, choosing their level of search complexity. Now that we have experience employing Web technology, what is the reality of its integration into the library world? The panel will present recent user behavior studies and their implications for adaptive interfaces, security configurations, and flexible approaches to public access computer/information resources. Audience attendees will be encouraged to share their experiences, raise their concerns, and express their visions about the use of the Web in libraries.

User Behavior in the Electronic Library: The Case for Adaptive and Flexible Interfaces. Oya Y. Rieger, Cornell University Library.
Library Online Catalog Use in the Web Environment: The Experience of a Public Library. Dan Iddings, Networked and Automated Services, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh.
Where Our Patrons Go in Cyberspace: Click-Stream Analysis in an Academic Research Library. Laura Cousineau and John Little, Perkins Library, Duke University.

Cassandra Armstrong, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, Moderator.

Semiotic Approaches to Information Science

Signs and symbols of all sorts play various roles in information science but the relationship between semiotics and information science is not clear to most people in information science. This panel will unite thinkers working at the forefront of the problem of how semiotics can help redefine the paradigm of information science to provide better tools for information seeking and information use.

Digital Collections: The Implications for the Future of Thesauri; A Semiotic Approach. Suzanne Bertrand-Gastaldy, École de bibliothèconomie et des sciences de l'information, Université de Montréal (gastaldy@ere.umontreal.ca).
Cartographic Semiotics: Spatial Representation and Postmodernity. Myke Gluck, School of Information Studies, Florida State University (mgluck@lis.fsu.edu).
Semiotic Script Methodology for Electronic Document Management. Peter Stockinger, Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales (stock@msh-paris.fr).
Browsing Visual Information in Virtual Environments: Multiresolutional Sign Interpretation and Domain Knowledge. Jean Umiker-Sebeok, School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University ( umikerse@indiana.edu).
Computational Semiotics: Plotting the Web!. Claude Vogel, Université Leonardo de Vinci and Semio Corporation (cvogel@semio.com).

Contributed Papers:

PORT: A Testbed Paradigm for Online Digital Archive Development. Mary Keeler and Leroy Searle, University of Washington, and Christian Kloesel, Indiana University-Purdue University.
The Concept of Subject in a Semiotic Light. Jens-Eric Mai, Royal School of Librarianship, Copenhagen.

James M. Turner, École de bibliothèconomie et des sciences de l'information, Université de Montréal, Moderator (turner@ere.umontreal.ca).

The State-of-the-Art of Search Engines as Intelligent Agents

The evolution of search software is now entering a third iteration in which search software is characterized by: 1) natural-language queries; 2) additional functions based on advanced natural-language processing, for example, relevance evaluation and customized presentation of results; and 3) a dissolving of the direct relationship between search software and specified databases -- the software may identify relevant databases in cyberspace, and then perform its functions on them. This session will involve presentations by vendors of commercial products, followed by the views of NSF on directions in which search software may develop, with special consideration to the extent to which third-generation features may augment or replace human interaction.

Daniel E. Rose, Apple Computer, Inc.
Dana Johnson, Ovid Technologies, Inc.
J. Michael Schultz, Infonautics Corp.
A representative of the National Science Foundation (Invited)

Deanna Hall, Morrow Corporate Information Resources, Inc., Moderator (dmhall@mindspring.com).

Strategic Transformation of Information Services
SIG III, MGT, FID Information Industry Committee

Successful information managers integrated corporate information services (IS) fully into all corporate activities. They adapted the IS to serve global companies rather than separate units, or national industrial sectors rather than medium-size enterprises. Information managers were also instrumental in changing the corporate view toward information and creating information-centric companies; some have been transforming their own services into virtual organizations, and have developed innovative ways to make full use of computing and communication capabilities. How could some IS departments expand their services in the midst of corporate cutbacks? How did IS reorient itself? What will be the information professional's role in the future? The panel members will recount accomplishments and review the process of the transformation of their ISs, a process that includes corporate management, technology, dismantling traditional barriers, and reshaping the outlook of the IS staff.

The Information-Centric Company: Opportunities for Information Professionals to Participate in the Development of the Business. Karl Kalseth, Norsk Hydro ASA.
UTC Moves to Virtual Information Services. Noreen O. Steele, United Technologies Research Center.
Challenges to Delivering Desktop Information to a Global Organization. Barbara J. Peterson, 3M Center.
Intranets Revolutionizing Corporate Communications. Irmgard R. Fischli, St. Johann Novartis Services, Inc.
Creating Responsive Information Services for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in a Developing Country. Anna Maria Prat, Comisión Nacional de Investigación Cientifica y Tecnológica.

Irene Farkas-Conn, Arthur L. Conn & Associates, Ltd., Irmgard R. Fischli, St. Johann Novartis Services, Inc., and Karl Kalseth, Norsk Hydro ASA, Moderators.

Studies of Faculty Transition To the Use of Electronic Information Resources

Each of the speakers will discuss results of research projects they have undertaken which examined faculties' adaptation to a variety of new electronic technologies. University and college libraries have acquired numerous information technologies and invested in networks to support the information needs of faculty and to facilitate the research process. While costly endeavors, they offer enhanced access to information for both faculty and students. The speakers will examine access to and use of electronic resources with regard to institution size and discipline. Changes in information seeking skills, uses of electronic information, the types of information desired, the skill at accessing electronic information, and the availability of this information will be discussed.

Eileen G. Abels, College of Library and Information Science, University of Maryland.
Joan Fiscella, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Julie Hurd, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Ann C. Weller, Library of the Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Natalie Schoch, Kellogg Company Science and Technology Center, Moderator (natalie.schoch@kellogg.com).

Then and Now: Information Science Problems and Systems

This session continues the annual sessions sponsored by SIG/HFIS and SIG/ED for the past six years on the history of information science. The theme this year, looking at some classical problems of information science, will be of interest to a general audience as well as those with an interest in the history of the field.

What Were Those Big Old Extract Files, and Why Should Anyone Care Today? Ben-Ami Lipetz, School of Information Science and Policy State, State University of New York at Albany (balipetz@cnsvax.albany.edu).
Online Information Retrieval: How Far Have We Come? Trudi Bellardo Hahn, User Education Services, University of Maryland Libraries and Charles P. Bourne ( th90@umail).
The Leadermart System: Then and Now. Donald Hillman, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Lehigh University.

Robert V. Williams, College of Library and Information Science, University of South Carolina, Moderator (bobwill@sc.edu).

Theories in Information Science

There are intermittent complaints that Information Science lacks theory. In this fourth annual session on Theory in Information Science, three theoretical papers will be presented on: the nature of digital documents; a reconsideration of the notion of "vocabulary" in retrieval systems; and a critique of the novelty of online communications.

Documents in Digital Collections. David M. Levy, Systems and Practices Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (dlevy@parc.xerox.com).
Vocabulary as a Central Concept in Information Science. Michael Buckland, School of Information Management and Systems, University of California, Berkeley (buckland@sims.berkeley.edu).
Just More or Different: Is a Revolutionary Communications Culture Emerging in an Online Age? W. Boyd Rayward, School of Information, Library, and Archive Studies, University of New South Wales (w.rayward@unsw.edu.au).

Thomas J. Froehlich, School of Library and Information Science, Kent State University, Moderator (tfroehli@kentvm.edu).

Time as a Factor in the Evaluation of Information Quality

The rate at which organized information can be produced has continued to rise rapidly, as predicted years ago, and is a primary basis on which new technology is sold and justified. The rate of producing information can be increased by physical and electronic means while the time required for product evaluation improves less rapidly, depending on skills and experience. There is a danger point in snap judgments, after these two curves cross. Product quality is degraded when decisions are delegated increasingly to people with inadequate skills, and pressure intensifies for fraud or virtual substitutes. The effects of better technology on quantity and quality of information are quite different. This is the 20th year since SIG/IAE was founded, by changing the name and statement of purpose of what was originally SIG/IAC. The theme of this discussion will be introduced as "The More Things Change . .", comparing criteria for evaluation at the time of the IAC to IAE shift (late 70s) with the post-war aims of Vannevar Bush (late 40s), and portents of Weblock (late 90s). Evaluation principles considered as basic in 1977 included: 1) value for each user is a variable, depending on intended use; 2) the value of an information service depends on peer acceptance, and recognized skills of the analyst; and 3) value includes quality, which depends on human choices and is not easily mechanized. Allowing sufficient time and energy for evaluation has been a continuing theme in each of these developments. Three authors will discuss interactions between human skill and new technologies, in case histories about hidden costs of speed and accessibility (David Penniman), variables of confidence and quality of Federal documents in an electronic age (Robin Peek), and problems in peer review for JASIS as a scholarly journal (Donald Kraft). In each of these cases, decisions on quality involve conflicts between tangible and intangible values.

Loss of Quality in Emerging Information Systems. W. David Penniman, School of Information Sciences, University of Tennessee - Knoxville (penniman@utk.edu).

The trade-off between quality and speed as well as accessibility has never been more evident than with the emergence of the World-Wide Web in particular and the Internet in general. When mapped against the ideal systems envisioned in historical descriptions (e.g. MEMEX of the 1940s or the information analysis centers of the 1950s and 1960s) we see real progress in speed of delivery as well as end-user accessibility. What is not obvious is the cost of the emerging systems when compared to other more traditional systems. Cost may be computed as the budgeted cost or the total systems cost. When budgeted cost is considered, the new systems appear to cost less. If, however, the total systems cost were evaluated, it would have to include the cost of time the end-users spent in wading through mounds of noisy material as well as the retrieval and possible use of poor quality material to make important decisions. The solution may not be a return to previous methods of information delivery, but enhancement of the emerging systems to include some of the screening and selection processes users have relied on in the past. Alternatives for integrating these processes into the new systems will be explored.
Assessments Considerations for Confidence and Quality of Federal Information in an Electronic Age. Robin Peek, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Simmons College (rpeek@simmons.edu).

Possible Effects of Information Technology on the Peer Review Process: JASIS as a Case History. Donald H. Kraft, Department of Computer Science, Louisiana State University (Kraft@bit.csc.lsu.edu).
Scholarly journals have traditionally required submission of hard copies of manuscripts that are then sent out to referees for peer review. Referees then return reviewing forms indicating measures of the manuscript's quality, needed revisions, and recommendations to the editor as to the acceptance or rejection of the paper. Details of this procedure for one such journal, the Journal of the Association for Information Science (JASIS) are provided. However, in today's world, manuscripts are generated via computer and are readily available in machine-readable formats that can be accessed via a wide variety of computer mechanisms (e.g., World Wide Web, electronic mail, ftp, electronic journals, electronic bulletin boards). Some journals do, or are considering doing, electronic submittal, electronic reviewing, and/or electronic publishing. In addition to convenience, a key element of this electronic processing is time. A mention of the possible impact of this on JASIS is anticipated. One issue is how the quality of the papers might be influenced by information technology advances, another is how the quality of the reviewing process itself might be. What pressures, including time and quality, come into play? In an era when time is quite precious, one can only speculate on the ever increasing importance of speeding up the process. Authors need to get their articles in print fast enough to keep up with the competition and with the ever increasing advant of information technology. Readers, too, want to be able to find articles that are state of the art at the time that the articles are state of the art. One could even question the need for peer review in the electronic age, as well as how to best to accomplish such review while trying to expedite publication of quality papers in a timely manner (print being in increasing competition with electronic media). One can certainly use the advances in information technology to speed up the peer review process and the dissemination process, too. However, one should not try to speed up the peer review itself, which requires a human to read, ingest, and judge a given work. Thus, while the communication mechanisms can be quicker, the mechanisms requiring human judgment are problematic. One wonders, and perhaps worries, that computers might be perceived as becoming replacements for the judgment of the peer review; to date, even with IBM's Big Blue besting Kasparov in the chess match, is even more problematic. Thus, a discussion of these time pressures and timely issues on JASIS will ensue.

Homer J. Hall, School of Communication, Information, and Library Science, Rutgers University, Moderator (HomerJHall@aol.com).

Last updated 10/23/97 by awh