Figure 1: Innovation cluster members

Publishing roles

Individuals as publishers

Individuals publish their own documents, distributing them directly to users without intermediaries.
libraries as publishers Libraries assume the traditional publishing role either for authors from their institutions or for a subject area.
Universities or subsidiary units as publishers Universities assume a publishing role beyond that currently played by university presses, perhaps publishing all documents created by their faculty. Individual units such as departments or work groups may assume this function.

Non-profit national publishing system

Some national institution already playing some other role or an institution created specially assumes the responsibility for publishing scholarly works.

Distribution and retrieval innovations

Elimination of the journal issue as a distribution format The journal issue ceases to exist with the article as the new publishing unit that is distributed.
Electronic distribution Articles or issues are distributed to purchasers, typically via e-mail. Initiation of distribution by the purchaser is not required.
Electronic notification Potential readers are notified of availability of new articles, either through a Table of Contents delivery or by some kind of profiling system (SDI for instance).
Individual retrieval as needed . Articles are stored remotely and users actively retrieve desired articles

Innovations in document structure

Electronic page images Conventional page formatting is retained by the creation of page images. Text may not stored as characters.
Electronic text Character-based storage of text. Formatting information may or may not be included. This format generally loosens restrictions on document size.
Hypertext links to related resources Embedded links point to related documents, data, data archives, or communications channels.
Internal hypertext links Links within a document pointing to other portions of the same document.
Nonlinear document structure Alternate structures could be developed to replace the conventional linear format (e.g. introduction, methods, results, analysis).
Multimedia - video, sound, high-quality images, three-dimensional images Documents incorporate media into text documents.
Embedded software Programs may be part of a publication allowing the reader to manipulate data or run simulations.
Inclusion of raw data Without stringent restrictions on article size, it may become possible to include raw data.
Embedded user comments Reviewer or reader comments can be incorporated into the article content.
Author updating Authors are able to incorporate more recent findings to articles as necessary.
Innovations in the validation of research
Pre-publication innovations Several authors have suggested that replacement of peer review by other validation methods.
No peer review Each reader evaluates information by individual standards.
Reviewer grading Grades or scores generated by reviewers can be incorporated into the publication or control accept/reject decisions.
Consensus review Some kind of broader scholarly community could be tapped beyond the traditional reviewer selection process now in place. Thus consensus of a community of peers could replace review by editors or their designates.
Post-publication innovations
Reader review Readers provide comments, grading, or usage information is used to validate research
Inclusion of usage data Usage data is stored with a publication and made available to readers.
Author revisions Authors are allowed to revise work following publication.

Sale and pricing innovations

Article pricing/sale on demand Articles become the unit that is bought and sold rather than annual subscriptions
Charges varying by type of use Print charges, view charges, search charges, and download charges can be imposed on users of documents.
Electronic payment Various types of electronic payment and/or microcharging could be implemented.
Sale of surrogate information Various types of surrogates could be created and sold. For instance, a format designed for browsing could be priced separately from a format containing the entire article.
Licensing Individuals or institutions purchase licenses rather than documents or subscriptions.

Storage innovations

Publisher storage Whoever assumes the publisher role (traditional publishers, individuals, institutions, libraries, or a national non-profit) also assumes responsibility for storage of articles.
Designated archive Official repositories are established, perhaps organized by discipline or some other criteria, and these provide long-term storage of electronic publications.
Library storage (individual initiative) Libraries assume the responsibility for long-term storage of electronic publications.
Distributed cooperative archiving A distributed cooperative archiving system is created. Archiving arrangements are un-official as compared to the designated archive.