Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology

Table of Contents

Volume 54  Issue 9


In This Issue



In this issue
Bert Boyce


Research Article





A Public-Key Based Authentication and Key Establishment Protocol Coupled with a Client Puzzle
M.C. Lee and Chun-Kan Fung
Published online 7 May 2003

Lee describes a public-key based authentication and key establishment protocol which is designed to prevent denial of service attacks an a server.









The Myth of Technological Neutrality in Copyright and the Rights of Institutional Users Recent Legal Challenges to the Information Organization as Mediator and the Impact of the DMCA, WIPO, and TEACH
Tomas A. Lipinski
Published online 7 May 2003

Lipinski contends that prior to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act United States Copyright Law was essentially medium neutral, but that the Copyright office in its implementation of DMCA has eliminated a digital form of the "first sale doctrine." The permission for libraries to make digital copies for replacement of damaged or obsolete format works is seen as a new restriction since access is limited to within the walls of the library; a distinct treatment for digital materials. The World Intellectual Property Organization's anti- trafficking and anti-circumvention rules incorporated in DMCA also apply only to digital material, not all copyrighted material. Fair use of digital works with access controls now requires permission as well the meeting of the fair use tests and technological control clearly trumps any right of public access. The Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act requires additional safeguards when material exists in digital form for use in distance education. Generally ownership rights are moving strongly into the digital environment but the balancing user's rights are not translating nearly as clearly.












Do Nondomain Experts Enlist the Strategies of Domain Experts?
Karen M. Drabenstott
Published online 7 May 2003

Previous studies have shown that domain experts use searching strategies based upon using known relevant documents to find additional material while non-domain experts prefer subject searching and area scanning. Drabenstott is interested in whether non-domain experts using modern academic library information gateways adopt domain expert techniques, and if so, how so, and with what success. The University of Michigan's gateway which features the online catalogs of Michigan's academic libraries, electronic periodicals, networked electronic secondary sources, and a ready reference shelf, was utilized by 14 undergraduate volunteers with a project to complete, using SnapZPro to record screens while the subjects spoken thoughts were recorded and Drabenstott observed the process and asked a series of questions. A series of states describing the process currently underway was created, with a new state recorded with each strike of the <enter> key. An interaction averaged 93 states with "select source" 20%, "search" 13%, "view-select results" 30% and "wait" 13%, dominating the distribution. Strategies are found in a depth analysis of the 'select source" and "search" states. Citation searching was not utilized. Two journal run searches were carried out, and one known item search. One searcher attempted a footnote chasing strategy and one an author search. Subject searching was the primary strategy. Non-domain expert strategies outnumbered domain-expert strategies 5 to 1. Five subjects used at least one domain-expert strategy, two of whom were following suggestions of their instructors. Where successful, perseverance, trial and error, and serendipity played a major part. If non-domain experts are to use domain expert strategies effectively they will need encouragement and support.











A Cast of Thousands Coauthorship and Subauthorship Collaboration in the 20th Century as Manifested in the Scholarly Journal Literature of Psychology and Philosophy
Blaise Cronin, Debora Shaw, and Kathryn La Barre
Published online 7 May 2003

Cronin, Shaw, and LaBarre examine each issue of the 100 volumes of Psychological Reviews and of Mind to identify the number of authors and co-authors, and the number of, text of, and names mentioned in, any acknowledgments present in research articles. Acknowledgments were categorized as unknown, conceptual, editorial, financial, instrumental/technical, moral, and reader (one who presented at a meeting) with a reliability of roughly 90%. In Psychological Reviews acknowledgments appeared in 10% of the papers in the 1920's, 22% in the 1940's, 43% in the 1950's, 84% in the 1960's and 97% in the 1980's. Financials comprised 36%, conceptual 31%, I/T 20%, editorial 11%, and moral and reader together, 1%. Co-authored papers exceeded single author papers for the first time in the 1980's and accounted for 71% n the 1990's. 3,126 unique names appeared in conceptual or I/T acknowledgments (the categories representing collaboration) with 56 appearing 6 or more times. In Mind acknowledgments appeared in 3% of papers in the 1920's,  27% in the 1970's, 63% in the 1980's, and 83% in the 1990's. The conceptual acknowledgment is most common at 69%, with editorial and financial each coming in at 11%. In Mind 98% of papers were single author. 1,008 unique names appeared in conceptual or I/T acknowledgments  with 40 appearing 5 or more times. Psychology appears more collaborative than Philosophy both in terms of acknowledgment and in terms of co-authorship.






The User-Subjective Approach to Personal Information Management Systems
Ofer Bergman, Ruth Beyth-Marom, and Rafi Nachmias
Published online 7 May 2003

Bergman, Beyth-Marom, and Nachmias believe that a storage system for a personal information system should facilitate a user storing items in such a manner that all material on the same user designated subject is together, and that its arrangement should be  effected by its user judged importance and its original context. The typical PC operating system will store bookmarks, documents and e-mails in different places despite their subjective association.











A Social Judgment Analysis of Information Source Preference Profiles  An Exploratory Study to Empirically Represent Media Selection Patterns
Joette Stefi-Mabry
Published online 7 May 2003

Stefl-Mabry looks at the degree of satisfaction individuals derive from specific quantities of information received from six different sources; word of mouth, expert oral advice, the Internet, print news, non-fiction books, and radio/TV news. Satisfaction was measured by a survey instrument, where 90 respondents (30 law enforcement professionals, 30 education professionals and 30 medical professionals) reported their satisfaction for forty tasks on a 0 to 100 scale. Social Judgement Analysis, a multiple regression technique, was used to reveal preferences for sources, the effect of volume of information on satisfaction, and the effect of positive and negative information from different sources on overall satisfaction. Expert oral advice accounted for 28% of the sample's preferences and non-fiction books 23%. Other sources were significantly lower. The centroid subject seems to derive high levels of satisfaction from high levels of supporting information, and the lowest satisfaction levels are associated with high volumes of conflicting information. This suggests four hypotheses Source preferences influence satisfaction, Individual source preference profiles exist as sets of interacting preferences for multiple sources, The consistency of preference profiles can be observed and measured, and information satisfaction judgements depend upon both conflicting and supporting information.


Book Reviews




Information Visualization in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, edited by Usama Fayyad,
Georges G. Grinstein, and Andreas Wierse
Reviewed by Christopher A. Badurek
Published online 7 May 2003



The User's View of the Internet, by Harry Bruce
Reviewed by Eric G. Ackerman
Published online 7 May 2003



Digital Futures Strategies for the Information Age, by Marilyn Deegan and Simon Tanner
Reviewed by Lisa Ennis
Published online 12 May 2003



Encoded Archival Description on the Internet, edited by Daniel V. Pitti and Wendy M. Duff
Reviewed by Dale A. Stirling
Published online 7 May 2003

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