Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology

Index
Table of Contents

Volume 54  Issue 5


 

In This Issue

361


 

In this issue
Bert Boyce
Published Online: 28 Feb 2003
 

 

Research Article

362-371

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

The Role of Electronic Preprints in Chemical Communication: Analysis of Citation, Usage, and Acceptance in the Journal Literature            
Cecelia Brown
Published Online: 6 Feb 2003

Brown uses 197 e-prints from Elsevier's Chemistry Preprint Server, CPS, for citation analysis to determine if they are cited in the chemical literature, as well as surveys of the 116 CPS authors and leading chemical journal editors ( as shown in Journal Citation Reports) to determine the use and influence of the e-print in chemistry.   The highest viewed and discussed e-prints in July of 2001 were checked for appearance as printed papers in December of 2001. Of these, 32% later appeared in the regular journal literature. The 28% of editors responding, with one exception, did not accept papers in the CPS or had no policy. On the acceptance of citations to e-prints, 27% said yes, 36% no, and 36% chose the other category. The 60 responding authors (52%) reported the submission of 1.7 papers to CPS, visit the site regularly, and 78% indicated they also contribute to peer reviewed journals.  No citations to e-prints were found in the Web of Science from 2000 to 2001. The only citations to CPS documents from CPS documents were two self citations. While CPS is utilized and valued by its users, it is not integrated into the web of chemistry citation. 
 

372-378

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Predicting Future Citation Behavior
Quentin L. Burrell
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

Burrell predicts the future citation behavior for sources in an homogeneous set of papers  each having a given number of current citations with the thought that the estimate of a paper's total future citations is an indicator of its impact. Each paper is assumed to have a latent rate at which citations may be acquired which constitutes a random variable over the collection. Obsolescence is represented by a cumulative distribution function on time, and the number of total citations at a given time as a Poisson distribution, the mean of which increases with time to a finite limit. The distribution of the additional number of citations to a paper during an interval of time can then be found permitting the computation of an expected total number of citations. The latent rate distribution may be adequately modeled by the gamma distribution, leading to a negative binomial distribution for the conditional distribution of citations, and a proof that the mean number of additional citations is a linear function of the current number of citations, which expresses the success breeds success principle. It is also possible to find the probability that an un-cited paper will be cited in a given time interval, or that a paper having received a given number of citations will receive no more in such an interval. It is not totally clear how to estimate the gamma distribution parameters, and there is currently no empirical evidence to support the model.
 

379-391

 


 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of Performance Variation Using Query Expansion
Nega Alemayehu
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

Using TREC-9 Query Track  performance data, Alemayehu ranks the query expansion methods by mean average precision. Three INQUERY, three SMART, and one OKAPI runs are tested to determine if significant variation is due to method, topic or method-topic interaction. ANOVA shows method, topic and topic-method effects are all significant at 0.0001. The variation due to topic is much greater than that due to method or interaction.  The hypothesis of no performance differences due to expansion in the INQUERY and SMART runs are then examined.  All seven runs are strongly correlated and expansion improves mean average precision in about 80% of cases. There is topical variation but topics that show a decrease do not reach a level of significance.  In both methods topics in the medium mean average precision grouping have significant differences between expanded and non-expanded runs. Query expansion not only increases drop size but improves rank order.
 

 

Special Topic Section:  VISUALIZING SCIENTIFIC PARADIGMS

392-393

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Visualizing Scientific Paradigms: An Introduction to the Special Issue
Chaomei Chen
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

This special topic issue includes a collection of seven articles on visualizing scientific paradigms. All articles in this special issue reflect the influence of Thomas Kuhn's structure of scientific revolutions on our understanding of the growth of scientific knowledge. On the other hand, each article represents a unique perspective of how one may pursue the quest for transforming something as intangible and empirically evasive as invisible colleges and competing paradigms into something that is more accessible and traceable to scholars and professions of various disciplines, ranging from historians, philosophers, and educators to scientists and engineers.

I hope that this collection of articles will stimulate more studies on this fascinating topic and more applications of research findings, methodologies, and techniques in a wider variety of real-world settings.
 

394-399

 

 

 

 

 

Paradigms, Citations, and Maps of Science: A Personal History    
Henry Small
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

The opening article is Henry Small's personal account of the endeavor in probing scientific paradigms using science mapping. His article, entitled Paradigms, Citations and Maps of Science: A Personal History, provides a valuable introduction to the key issues involved in this area and reveals an overview of promising avenues as well as challenging routes. He identifies an emerging trend that reflects and redefines Kuhn's paradigms and emphasizes the empirical viability of research methodologies in understanding the growth of scientific knowledge. He suggests that revolutionary and normal science should be seen as extremes on a continuum of rates of change rather than, as Kuhn originally asserted, as an all-or-none proposition.
 

400-412

 

 

 

 

Why Do We Need Algorithmic Historiography?
Eugene Garfield, A. I. Pudovkin, and V.S. Istomin
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

Eugene Garfield and his collaborators' article is entitled Why Do We Need Algorithmic Historiography? They explain the rationale for creating HistCite, their new program that produces historiographs of scholarly topics. These historiographs help analysts and historians identify key events, people, and journals in a particular field. Scholars can evaluate the evolution of a scientific paradigm by studying the genealogic profile of such evolution.
 

413-422

 

 

 

 

 

Time Line Visualization of Research Fronts
Steven A. Morris, G. Yen, Zheng Wu, and Benyam Asnake
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

The third article is entitled Time Line Visualization of Research Fronts. Steven Morris and his colleagues focus on temporal changes in research fronts and explain the power of timeline visualizations. They first cluster documents into research fronts based on bibliographic coupling and then visualize research fronts using horizontal timeline tracks. Documents from research fronts are plotted along corresponding timeline tracks. Because time line visualizations can reveal temporal relations among research fronts and their member documents, time lines are potentially useful tools in identifying new research fronts as well as existing research expertise and research excellence.
 

423-434

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pathfinder Networks and Author Cocitation Analysis: A Remapping of Paradigmatic Information Scientists
Howard D. White
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

Howard White's article, entitled Pathfinder Networks and Author Cocitation Analysis: A Remapping of Paradigmatic Information Scientists, clarifies an important methodological issue, whereas Chen and Kuljis focus on a general framework for visualizing scientific paradigms in their article. 

Author Cocitation Analysis (ACA) is a long established methodology for studying intellectual structures. Researchers have routinely used Pearson correlation coefficients rather than raw cocitation counts as the measure of similarity between author pairs. Howard White compellingly demonstrates the advantages of using raw cocitation counts in Pathfinder network visualizations of author cocitation structures. He compares Pathfinder networks of the information scientists derived from raw cocitation counts and Pearson correlation coefficients, respectively.
 

435-446

 


 

 

 

The Rising Landscape: A Visual Exploration of Superstring Revolutions in Physics
Chaomei Chen and Jasna Kuljis
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

In the fifth article The Rising Landscape: A Visual Exploration of Superstring Revolutions in Physics, Chen and Kuljis introduce a general framework for visualizing the growth of scientific paradigms based on Kuhn's theory on scientific revolutions. They illustrate the use of this framework in a case study of superstring revolutions in physics. The evolution of cocitation networks is depicted and explained through animated visualizations of citations and cocitation links. Visual-spatial properties as well as structural patterns associated with superstring revolutions are identified.
 

447-461

 

 

 

 

 

Indicator-Assisted Evaluation and Funding of Research: Visualizing the Influence of Grants on the Number and Citation Counts of Research Papers
Kevin W. Boyack and Katy Borner
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

In their article entitled Indicator-Assisted Evaluation and Funding of Research: Visualizing the Influence of Grants on the Number and Citation Counts of Research Papers, Kevin Boyack and Katy Borner report their research on analyzing and visualizing the relationship between the funding level and intellectual outputs of research, namely the quantity of research publications and their citations. They analyze grant and publication data from one of the research programs at the National Institue on Aging (NIA) using the VxInsight  system developed at Sandia National Laboratories.
 

462-468

 

 

 


 

Simultaneous Mapping of Interactions between Scientific and Technological Knowledge Bases: The Case of Space Communications
Published Online: 30 Jan 2003

The title of the seventh article is Simultaneous Mapping of Interactions between Scientific and Technological Knowledge Bases: The Case of Space Communications. Emmanuel Hassan examines the knowledge structure of space communications using a combined methodology based on scientific publications and patent data. His work focuses on the need of visualizing scientific and technologic structures of knowledge simultaneously. A bibliometric map is constructed to depict research and development activities in Triad countries, which include the United States, Japan, and the European Union countries.
 

 

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