B  U  L  L  E  T  I  N


of the American Society for Information Science and Technology       Vol. 31, No. 4    April/May 2005

Go to
Bulletin Index

bookstore2Go to the ASIST Bookstore

Copies

Global Information Village Plaza

by Nadia Caidi and Michel J. Menou

Nadia Caidi is with the Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto, 140 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3G6, Canada ; email: caidi@fis.utoronto.ca

Michel J. Menou is with CIDEGI, B.P. 15, 49350 Les Rosiers sur Loire, France; email: Michel.Menou@wanadoo.fr

For more complete biographies of the organizers of the Global Village Plaza , see the sidebar at the conclusion of this article.

Since 2002, the Global Information Village Plaza (also known as Global Plaza ) has been a staple of the ASIS&T Annual Meetings. For three years in a row, the moderators, Nadia Caidi and Michel Menou, have engaged in a quest for input from and dialogue among the information science community – both specialists and lay professional public – about the major features of our globalized world and the so-called information society. And like all quests it has required hard work, creativity, perseverance and passion.

The aims of the Global Plaza are to provide an opportunity for all ASIS&T members (and information professionals at-large) to express and share their personal views and hear from others about what this “new” and “global” society means to them in a real and concrete sense (beyond the expert jargon). What follows is an overview of the Global Information Village Plaza initiative, an examination of the issues raised by contributors during the three editions of the Plaza and an analysis of the lessons learned with their implications for ASIS&T and the information profession as a whole.  

Background and Format

The Global Information Village Plaza was born out of the idea of going beyond the hype, rhetoric and expert analysis by the happy few involved in the preparation of policies and programs intended to support the transition into the “information society” or “digital economy.” The Plaza was to give ASIS&T members – and information professionals at-large – an opportunity to express their views about the challenges and opportunities that the so-called information society represents in their personal and professional lives.

The first edition of the Global Information Village Plaza took place in 2002 as the Special Interest Group/International Issues in Information (SIG/III) was celebrating its 20th anniversary. (See article by Yin Zhang in this special section of the Bulletin.) It was essential that the session be interactive, broadly encompassing and inclusive of various discourses and perspectives – “From North, South, East and West,” as was stated in the Call for Contributions. To accomplish these goals, the format consisted of three phases: before, during and after the meeting.

The format of the first Global Plaza set the stage for the other two editions at subsequent ASIS&T Annual Meetings. In each case, the procedure was as follows:

§            Before the meeting contributors were asked to post (and discuss) short position statements – or “What if?” questions, in the case of the third edition of the Global Plaza – on the SIG/III listserv. Selected statements were then summarized and compiled in a series of posters by the moderators.

§            During the meeting, participants attending the Global Plaza session were invited to browse the posters and submit their comments in writing (via post-its, generally). Participants were then asked to reconvene and discuss the issues that spoke to them or that they deemed essential to address.

§            After the meeting, the moderators would compile the outcomes of the Plaza (both the online contributions and a summary of the interactions at the Annual Meeting) and publish them on the SIG/III website (see Global Plaza archives at www.asis.org/SIG/SIG-III; look for “ Global Plaza ” on the left side bar).  

The First Global Plaza (2002)

Each Global Plaza edition feeds off the previous one. In 2002, for instance, the moderators asked for position statements on the following questions:

1.         What in your opinion will be radically changed in your professional life as a result of the globalization of the information society? Why? What should you do in order to cope with the change? What should the information science and technology community do to help you and itself cope with the change?

2.         What in your opinion will be radically changed in your personal life as a result of the globalization of the information society? Why? What should you do in order to cope with the change? What should the information science and technology community do to help you cope with the change?

As a result of the contributions and discussions at the Annual Meeting, a series of themes emerged that formed the basis for the second edition of the Global Plaza .  Among the recurring themes were the rise (and challenges) of multiculturalism and multilingualism, the changing nature of the public sphere, the strategies for coping with information overload and pollution, the new patterns of work and social life and increased opportunities for social involvement, as well as issues around the digital divide and inequalities.

At the professional level, learning was a much-discussed theme, including topics such as lifelong learning for information professionals and switching the focus from information systems toward interactive learning along with user-friendliness and reliability of ICT applications and the conflicting potential of ICTs as instruments of cultural domination or liberation.

Already, the role of the information science and technology community was viewed as essential in leading the change and educating professionals about information culture and the potential of ICTs. A call for better ethics, more openness and leadership (“make it safer, simpler, cheaper”) was also made.  

The Second Global Plaza (2003)

Building on the findings of the 2002 session, the next edition aimed at both deepening the reflections on issues raised in the first Plaza and exploring these issues through various media forms. New features were added, such as multimedia presentations showing real world spots and related information society features around the globe, as well as a graphic arts contest. The following themes were identified for discussion based on the discussions at the first Global Plaza :

·        Multiculturalism and multilingualism

·        Lifelong learning for information professionals

·        Public sphere and its information spaces

·        Strategies for coping with information overload and pollution

·        Switching focus from information systems toward interactive learning systems

·        User-friendliness and reliability of ICT applications

·        New patterns of work and social life

·        ICT and information as instruments of domination and/or liberation on the international scene

·        The state of information post 9/11

The 2nd edition of the Global Plaza was an opportunity to discuss these themes. Apart from the position statements on the various issues above, a number of questions on the “What if?” model emerged from the online contributions and the discussions at the meeting. The moderators compiled the questions (see sidebar, What If?). The examples below illustrate the tone of the discussions and set the stage for the third edition of the Global Plaza .

·        What if we made it a requirement for admission to information studies programs that students spend at least one year in a remote/rural area, low-income community or in a developing nation?

·        What if people from various parts of the world did not want software and products in their local languages?

·        What if we let the private sector take over the globalization of information products and services?

·        What if broadening access to ICTs is simply not enough?

·        What if the information science community was the leading voice at the World Summit on the Information Society?  

The Third Global Plaza (2004)

The format of the 2004 (third) edition of the Global Information Village Plaza differed substantially from the previous ones in that it featured a request for questions rather than answers. Questions were purposefully formulated in a “What if?” format intended to elicit provocative debates and open a dialogue among participants. The rationale for this decision was that asking the right questions is often half of the answer. “What if?” questions are often deemed irrelevant – or even useless – because they steer us away from agreed upon conventions and set frameworks. There are instances, however, when “what if?” questions help us think in new and creative ways about our assumptions and goals.

Despite the new format, the Global Plaza maintained its successful interactive feature aimed at giving ASIS&T members an opportunity to express their personal views about the challenges and opportunities that they encounter in the information society both at a personal and professional level. Participation at the Global Plaza sessions reflected the composition of the ASIS&T membership and crossed the SIG boundaries. International colleagues, including International Paper Contest winners, were often introduced and encouraged to share their views on the issues at hand. Their views provided some reality checks and a good dose of pragmatism and discovery about initiatives and realities in various parts of the world (see sidebar, In Their Own Voices). Contributions were made from around the world by researchers and practitioners as well as by students – in cases when the position statements were integrated as part of a course assignment (see article by Anthony Ross in this special section).  
Participants look at the questions submitted at the 3rd Global Plaza

Participants look at the questions submitted at the 3rd Global Plaza

Issues Raised

The three editions of the Global Information Village Plaza shed light on a number of issues that are of interest to Plaza contributors as well as to the ASIS&T community as a whole. Besides the various themes and issues that emerged from the first two editions of the Plaza (through the position statements and subsequent discussions), the third edition elicited a number of questions that illustrate well the breadth and scope of issues related to this broad topic. Over 50 questions were submitted to the 3rd Global Information Village Plaza . The moderators clustered the submissions around 11 themes, which are listed below with representative examples:

1.      Infrastructures in times of crisis (2 questions): “What if power were to disappear?” “What if there were major accidents such as earthquakes or inter-ethnic conflicts that destroyed a country’s infrastructure?”

2.      Language issues (6 questions): “What if Orwell's ‘novlang’ were to become the pidgin-English of the Internet?” “What if bilingualism would be a minimum entry requirement for LIS degree programs?”

3.      Power and control (4 questions). “What if the ‘cult of information’ were to materialize into a ‘Ministry of Truth’ (a la Orwell, 1984)?” “What if we design blogging services that are not censored in China and elsewhere?”

4.      Humans vs. machines (2 questions): “What if ‘THE' network were to take over and we became the neurons of a cybernetic monster?”

5.      Quality of relationships (2 questions): “What if humans were to favor relationships with the Other rather than with everybody?” “What if humans were to favor social well-being over technological progress?”

6.      Cost, access and sustainability (3 questions): “What if Internet traffic rights between two countries were to be equally shared between them (sum of the traffic to and from the 2 countries divided by 2)?”

7.      Inclusion and digital divide (5 questions): “What if people in ‘developed countries’ could cover the costs of their pen pals’ emails – what kind of pen pals would they like to have?”

8.      Information literacy (3 questions): “What if humans were to favor knowledge over information?” “What if literacy really were still based on the competency to read and understand ideas in writing rather than displaying ‘information literacy’ (whatever that is) via intermediary technologies?”

9.      Education and training (4 questions): “What if ethics were part of compulsory courses in LIS programs?” “What if library and information science institutions throughout the world followed the same standards and curriculum?”

10.  Alternative publishing models & open source (8 questions): “What if the work of publishers (including commercial and society) and professional associations toward a uniform model for subscription rates from country to country provided equal access rights?” “What if information resources created with public funds were part of the public sphere?”

11.  Scholarly research (8 questions): “What if there were a five-year moratorium on ‘scientific’ conferences and the time was used for a critical assessment of the respective fields and their contribution to humankind happiness and enlightenment?” “What if every publication published online in various subjects could be freely accessible for developing countries’ professionals?”  

During the session at the Annual Meeting, posters with the complete list of contributed questions were scattered around the room. Participants were invited to view the posters and add their comments on stickers. They were also asked to vote for the most provocative questions. After some time, the moderators tallied the votes to select the top five and invited the audience to gather around two special guests selected from among the conference participants – ASIS&T International Paper Contest winner Shivanthi Weerasinghe and information consultant Marjorie Hlava (ASIS&T president in 1994) – who contributed actively to the discussions.
Shivanthi Weerasinghe, winner of the ASIS&T SIG/III International Paper Competition, makes a point

Shivanthi Weerasinghe, winner of the ASIS&T SIG/III International Paper Competition, makes a point
 

The following were among the most voted for questions:

·        What if information resources created with public funds were part of the public sphere? (13 votes)

·        What if humans were to favor social well-being over technological progress? (13 votes)

·        What if humans were to favor knowledge over information? (11 votes)

·        What if 10% of the IT industries advertising budget would be invested in developing effective automatic translation software? (8 votes)

·        What if information professionals could control the world? (7 votes)

·        What can professionals do to counter the chilling effects of propaganda organized by the U.S. and other governments? (7 votes)

·        What if all the institutions in the world were to develop interoperable institutional repositories ensuring that their research becomes mainstream and contributes on an equal footing to the global knowledge pool? (7 votes)


Nancy John, right, has the floor at the 3rd Global Plaza.  Moderators Michel Menou, standing, and Nadia Caidi, seated, look on

Nancy John, right, has the floor at the 3rd Global Plaza. Moderators Michel Menou, standing, and Nadia Caidi, seated, look on

About two dozen people attended the third Global Plaza. At the core of the discussions were the roles and responsibilities that information professionals and ASIS&T have in ensuring the values raised by questions of access, open source, public interest, equity, interoperability, education, awareness, diversity (linguistic and cultural) and so on. As an example, a discussion took place about whether ASIS&T could or should have more languages being represented on its website and on the program at the Annual Meeting.

Much debate also took place around the technological aspects. Some attendees disputed the idea that information and communication technologies needed to be at the center of all discussions. As one participant stated: “Does it matter that many people have never made a phone call? Or whether they are even interested in making one?” There seemed to be a consensus during the discussions about the importance of a community-based approach and community-based needs. Technology, as it was asserted, remains a matter of choice, but everyone needs to be informed about its potential and limitations so that an informed decision can be made by individuals to use it or not.

The role of ASIS&T in educating and raising awareness about the potential and challenges of ICTs was again emphasized strongly by many attendees. (“ASIS&T should help me get the information to make that choice.”) The idea of the neutrality (or not) of technology inspired passionate diatribes from both camps and resulted in the recommendation of a panel on the topic to be organized for the next annual meeting of ASIS&T.

Another role for ASIS&T was to highlight best practices – what works in terms of projects and initiatives and how to share knowledge about such topics as information for health, community development, and technological decisions, implementation and evaluation.

Marge Hlava leads a discussion at the 2004 edition of the Global Information Village Plaza

Marge Hlava leads a discussion at the 2004 edition of the Global Information Village Plaza

The issues of education, awareness and social responsibility were also a recurring theme – getting people connected, training information professionals and researchers in developing nations and encouraging connections and partnerships with colleagues (practitioners and academics) from various parts of the world were mentioned as examples of directions ASIS&T needed to strengthen.

Discussions also revolved around the idea of literacy and trust (“to help people find out what they want to know and keep out information that they don’t want to know”). Cost and affordability (of databases and e-resources) were, of course, major issues that were raised when discussions about access took place.

Participants asked whether ASIS&T could advocate for libraries and other information institutions.

In particular, ASIS&T was viewed as having a significant role to play in raising awareness and educating various stakeholders about the importance of preserving public domain knowledge and passing it on, as well as in educating the broader public about economics of information (much discussion took place on alternative publishing models and licensing mechanisms, such as Creative Commons, that ASIS&T could actively encourage and support).

Toni Carbo brings her perspective to bear on the discussion

Toni Carbo brings her perspective to bear on the discussion

The idea of having a voice and getting the message out kept coming up over and over. (“We need to use technology to our advantage,” “We need to become public intellectuals, not only publishing in JASIST, but also in op-eds, etc.”  “We need to be more active, to explore current issues like e-voting.”)

By the end of the Global Plaza session, there were many ideas for panels to be organized at the next ASIS&T Annual Meeting. Among them a panel on the neutrality (or not) of technology, a panel investigating the information creation process (an often overlooked aspect of the information cycle according to the participant who discussed the idea), a panel on the role of information professionals and ASIS&T in education and awareness and a workshop on international information policy in the context of our global and networked world.

Lessons Learned

The participants seemed to agree with one attendee who highlighted the role of sessions such as the Global Information Village Plaza as a means to give an equal voice to participants from all parts of the world. This comment highlighted the importance of diversity of perspectives and the resulting knowledge one can gain about other cultures, experiences and issues. The Global Plaza ’s potential to act as a springboard for future research ideas and initiatives was also raised. Examples included using some of the themes raised at the session for student research projects, raising awareness of the issues through such mechanisms as the creation of forums, weblogs and success stories.  

Abebe Rorissa joins in

Abebe Rorissa joins in

The three editions of the Global Village Plaza raised a number of very important issues for the information science community as well as for the roles and responsibilities of ASIS&T.  Feedback received by participants during and after seems to suggest that the Global Plaza offers a unique opportunity for participants to share personal views and experiences in an unconstrained and interactive fashion. These views highlight the importance of diversity of perspectives from around the world. Sessions like the Global Plaza serve in particular to remind us that we are too often blinded by our assumptions/biases about culture, technologies, information resources and information use patterns. Only by providing forums and venues like the Global Plaza at the ASIS&T Annual Meetings (and in other meetings as well) can we start to challenge our assumptions and open up to the realities elsewhere.  

The author/moderators encourage anyone from any part of the world who is interested in this plurality of discourse and perspectives to get involved and to volunteer ideas, time, energy and, above all, their passion.

Points Made So Far  

1.        In the global information society what will be radically changed in our professional lives and why?

·        So many things, amazing isn't it?

·        Linguistic diversity

·        Multiculturalism

·        Becoming information rich at a click

·        Coping with information overload and pollution

·        Saving the public sphere

·        Technology pushing changes

·        Not everybody has the chance to be the son of an Inuit mother

·        New patterns of work

·        ICT neo-colonialism

·        More interaction with peers

·        New social responsibilities

·        Keep learning or die

2.        In the global information society what should you do in order to cope with the change(s) in professional lives?

·        Learn. Learn. Learn.

·        Learn critically

·        Become a smart ICT user

·        Become sensitive to cultural and international variations

·        Learn languages

·        Network for action

·        Belong to professional societies

·        Change yourself and your practice

3.        In the global information society what should the information science and technology community do to help you cope with the change in professional lives?

·        Proactive support of learning

·        Become more international

·        Broaden ICT access

4.      In the global information society what should the information science and technology community do to help itself cope with change in professional lives?

·        Lead change

·        Become more open

·        Educate

·        Make it safer, idiot!

·        Make it simpler, idiot!

·        Make it cheaper, idiot!

·        Become multi-lingual and -cultural

·        Turn table for a demand driven ICT development

·        Become ethical

5.      In the global information society what in your opinion will be radically changed in personal lives and why?

·        More pressure

·        Need to keep abreast with ICT

·        More opportunities for social involvement

·        More inequalities

·        More and different communication

·        Rise of multi-culturalism

·        More intrusions

·        New forms of entertainment

 

6.      In the global information society what should you do in order to cope with the change in personal lives?

·        Keep socializing

·        Seek personal development

·        Keep learning

7.      In the global information society what should the information science and technology community do to help you with the changes in personal lives?

·        (Re-)gain leadership

·        Seek multidisciplinarity

·        Promote information culture

·        Appropriate and friendly systems


What If?  

1.      What if we made it a requirement for admission to information studies programs that students spend at least one year in a remote/rural area, low-income community or in a developing nation?

2.      What if people from various parts of the world did not want software and products in their local languages?

3.      What if “being an information professional” meant different things to different people throughout the world?

4.      What if we let the private sector take over the globalization of information products and services?

5.      What can ASIS&T claim to have truly achieved from an international perspective?

6.       What would have been different if the information science community had managed to have its voice heard at the World Summit on the Information Society? ( Geneva , December 2003; Tunis , 2005)?

7.      What if broadening access to ICTs is simply not enough?

8.      What if the neutrality of information institutions – libraries, archives, museums – were a myth? Would information professionals start taking a political stance and actively engage in fighting for the values they hold dear (access, equality, freedom of speech, etc.)?

9.      Why were there no position statements that tackled the theme of “the state of information post 9/11”? Does this absence/silence mean more than any speech?


In Their Own Voices

This past ASIS&T was my first Global Plaza I actually had a chance to attend.  Although I've lurked on the list for some time, something came together for me in Providence.  As a faculty member, I realized how little I come in contact with the professional community.  Although I'm with students much of the time, I had for gotten how much our graduates out in the workforce really have to teach us.  Plus, in an era of increasing global discourse, it was refreshing to hear international professionals voice their ideas and opinions.  I would argue that  that kind of international sharing among students, faculty, and professionals will be increasingtly important as more of us are joined through ICTs.

Kendra S. Albright
University of Tenessee

I have attended the Global Plazas since their inception and have found them amongst the most interesting sessions, particularly the format for discussion this year [2004]. I value particularly the socialization and spoken, rather than written, dialogue and the opportunity to obtain different perspectives

Julian Warner
Queens University, Belfast, UK

Congratulations for this original idea [What if?" questions]!  I hope that GIVP=3 can bring some provocative thoughts about our profession and our roles in this information society.

Murilo Cunha
Brazil

I just looked at the online discussion and did a little contribution to this, but I found it interesting in that it raised some of the broader issues, sometimes quite fundamental ones, that get buried in more practical ASIS&T concerns.

Sheila Webber
University of Sheffield, UK

I have prepared some practical questions, which are formulated by me, proceeding from some situations occurring in Republic of Armenia.  So in 1988 of the 7th of December there was an awful earthquake in territory of Armenia, before that there was a question on connection of Nagorni Karabakh with Armenia and following conflict to Azerbaijan.  [...]  I hope you will analyze these questions and will make the conclusions.  With impatience I wait for your answer.  Any conclusions are interesting to me.

Zova Martirosian
Armenia

I guess it is "information education" that we need to focus equally on and it is this factor that has lead to the success of the Gyandoot [Digital Library] project among the 1.6 million illiterate, semi-literate and literate user community.  I think that this also conveys a message and shows a way, tot he library community in India, still grappling with ways and means for information technology implementation.

Smita Chandra
Librarian, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism
New Mumbai, India

As a writer on global issues I collect wit and wisdom on this topic and since there is so much information the first challenge is to clear my mind of all the theory, hype and stuff on this topic and ask myself as I sit in my office this morning what difference does it really make to me.

Stan Skrzeszewski
Toronto, Canada

This is hugely innovative.  Congratulations!  I look forward to a great session.

Sue Johnson
USA

SIG/III has a lot to offer; attending this meeting allowed me to learn a lot and to network extensively; we should pay attention to sustaining this movement.

Anonymous

Excerpts from Contributions to the Discussion

Language barriers must be broken if you want global participation. Therefore, tools that translate metadata or indexing data at the word level must be developed in a revolutionary way.

Listen. Learn a language. Really learn about other cultures.

We talk about multiculturalism, but most of us do not learn languages of other cultures. How can we truly communicate?

Yes! Lead the charge, shape your own future. Otherwise the future will be shaped by others.

Seen from an African village, the global village does not exist yet. So we need to work hard to convince policy-makers, especially by providing them with relevant information, so that they support the required developments.

Stop talking to ourselves. Get out and listen to people from other communities, fields, etc.

Current U.S. visa regulations have prevented a number of SIG/III award winners from coming to the 2002 Annual Meeting. That is a most frustrating experience.

ASIS&T has participated in events abroad in the past and should seek such opportunities more actively.

The vast majority of people in Indonesia cannot read English; together we should join forces to try and find solutions to such problems.

Even though infrastructures are still weak in my country, Ethiopia, we now have better conditions of access. What is really critical is the provision of relevant and usable content that can contribute to improving users’ welfare.

There is a need to demonstrate the theoretical value of all research being carried out outside the United States so that knowledge creation will become more global.

Study information ethics and work to practice it!  

About the Moderators/Organizers of the Global Information Village Plaza

Nadia Caidi is an assistant professor at the Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto . She holds an MST in communication studies from the Université Stendhal Grenoble 3, France, and an MLIS and a Ph.D. in information studies from the University of California , Los Angeles . Her primary research interests are information policy and social/community informatics. She is also involved in cross-cultural and comparative studies, researching the influence of culture on the production, distribution and use of information and its technologies.

She received grants from the A.W. Mellon Foundation to examine the development of national information infrastructures (NIIs) in various central and eastern European countries. In subsequent studies, she has examined the choices and values that are embedded in the design of information, its institutions and its technologies, and how these might translate to other cultural contexts.

Her current research projects reflect this quest for understanding the cultural paradigms of transmission and use of information. She is the principal investigator on various projects, including the IPERC project (Information Practices of Ethno-Racial Communities), which aims to provide insights to frontline information providers about the information needs and uses of Toronto ’s multicultural immigrant community. The findings will also serve to influence government programs and funding priorities concerning information provision and access strategies to improve social inclusion of these communities into the Canadian social fabric.

She is also the principal investigator on a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)-funded grant on “Information and Access Post 9/11.” Moreover, Nadia is a co-applicant on the RICTA project (Research on Information and Communication Technologies with Aboriginal communities). She is also a collaborator on CRACIN, the Canadian Research Alliance for Community Innovation and Networking, which is an SSHRC-funded project that examines the role and impact of community networking initiatives. Within CRACIN, she is the lead for a study on community networking and libraries, whose aim is to assess the innovative technologies available to libraries for service provision.

Her interest in bringing marginalized voices to be cognizant of, and contribute to, the policy debates around various information issues has led her to become an active officer of SIG/III of ASIS&T (and is its current chair-elect).

Michel J. Menou is an independent international consultant in knowledge & information management. He graduated from the Institut d' Études Politiques, University of Paris ; did postgraduate studies in information science at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, University of Paris ; and earned a Ph.D. in information sciences from the University Michel de Montaigne-Bordeaux III.

Michel has been a member of ASIS&T since 1968. He was the co-founder and first chair in 1983 of the Special Interest Group/International Information Issues (SIG/III). He was also a member of the International Relations Committee (1989-1993) and chair of the European Chapter (1992-1993). Michel received the ASIS&T Watson Davis Award in 1985 – the first and still only non-U.S. recipient.

He has worked since 1966 in about 80 countries, mostly as a freelance consultant, but also in various other positions, on the development of national and international information systems, national information policies, curriculum development, and teaching of information sciences, users sensitization and training. The fieldwork Michel conducted and implemented as part of assignments with international projects included many components of analysis, diagnostic and participation-research.

His research and teaching interests include information policies; impact and value of information; knowledge management; design and management of information resources, systems and services; globalization of the information sector, with a slant to the developing countries; distance education and curriculum design.

[Photos by Yin Zhang.]


How to Order

American Society for Information Science and Technology
8555 16th Street, Suite 850, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA
Tel. 301-495-0900, Fax: 301-495-0810 | E-mail:
asis@asis.org

Copyright © 2005, American Society for Information Science and Technology